Primary Contact: Ahmed Diis Haji
Executive Director
Mobile: +252 619 693 395/+254 720 324 585
Secondary Contact: Abdi Khalif Mohamed,
1.0 Problem statement
In Somalia, the civil war that broke out in1991 has had a devastating impact on the public
Institutions. Two decades of conflict have devastated Somalia’s water sector, leaving the country with
some of the worst health and water indicators in the world. Somalia is an extremely water-scarce country
and access to safe and clean water supply and sanitation is a significant problem aggravated by the
destruction and looting of infrastructure during the civil war, in combination with the continuous conflict and
the cyclical drought and flooding. The impact of this is wide spread poor coverage of water and sanitation
services coupled with poor hygienic practices resulting in high rates of water related diseases such as
diarrhoea, which accounts for about 20% of the country’s under five years mortality rates. Persistent
waterborne disease outbreaks and lack of improvement (or a degradation) of the malnutrition situation is
due, in part, to significant underfunding of WASH activities. According to health workforce assessment
2014, around 45 per cent of Somalis do not have access to safe water while 37 per cent do not have
access to basic sanitation. The acute shortage of water in some districts is further exacerbated by
seasonal droughts and floods leaving vulnerable people with limited affordable options. Women and girls,
also due to their needs linked to reproductive health, bear the brunt of poor sanitation facilities and the
practice of open defecation is common and notably undertaken after dark, which poses them a severe
protection risk and exposes them to physical assaults and GBV including rape.
Somalia’s 1.1 million internally displaced women, girls, boys and men largely live in unplanned and informal
settlements in urban areas across Somalia. The majority, 893,000 internally displaced persons live in
southern and central parts of Somalia, Internal displacement results in loss of social protection networks,
but also loss of other elements important to their safety and security, such as land tenure rights. Economic
exploitation and abuse of internally displaced persons is therefore widespread. The harmful environment in
most internally displaced persons settlements due to the ungoverned nature of the settlements,
overcrowding, infiltration, or limited access to protective shelter and safe and nearby water and sanitation
installations add to the elevated protection risk exposure.
Accessing clean water, and maintaining proper hygiene and sanitation structures is critical and a major
challenge among returnees, IDPs and most of the communities in Somalia. In Beletweyne and Matabaan
districts of Hiraan there are few boreholes with limited yield, while shallow wells dry up or experience
frequent breakdowns as they are used without being properly serviced. Additionally, limited sanitation
facilities and often open defecation practices in overcrowded areas, coupled with the lack of basic
knowledge on hygiene practices increase the risk of diseases.
Areas near the river in Lower Juba, Hiiraan and Middle Shebelle has borne the brunt of recurrent water
borne disease outbreaks and floods especially AWD that attributed to lack of access to safe water,
sanitation facilities and poor hygiene services. It was noted that unprotected water sources, lack of clean
water supply, inappropriate sanitation and hygiene contributed to increased vulnerability to waterborne
diseases in the district (UNOCHA, 2012). Large portions of the people are at continuous risk of waterborne
diseases like Acute Watery Diarrhoea (AWD), Cholera and Polio (UNOCHA, 2013). The contamination of
public water supplies is a major threat to public health; diseases such as cholera, typhoid fever, diarrhoeal
diseases, hepatitis and gastroenteritis may increase as a result People visiting the few health facilities
seeking health attention has increased drastically and is significantly aggravated and contributed to the
previously poor health status of the vulnerable groups. Water, sanitation and hygiene related diseases such
as acute watery diarrhoea (AWD), dysentery and typhoid account for the biggest of all diagnosed cases at
the health centres. In addition, field reports indicate a seasonal increase in cases of acute watery diarrhoea
in these regions which is likely to aggravate nutrition situation (FSNAU Nutrition Update, August-Nov 2015)
1.1 Project Statement
This project seeks to increase the availability and access to clean, safe and adequate water, sanitation
facilities and hygiene promotion to underserved populations in Mataban, Beletweyne and Bullo Burte
Districts of Hiiraan, Jowhar, Balcad and Cadaale of Middle Shebelle region and Badhade and Afmadow of
Lower Juba. Enhancing access to affordable adequate clean and safe water, decent sanitation facilities and
promotion of hygienic practices to the most vulnerable Returnees, Internally Displaced Persons and their
Host Communities.According to UNFPA 2014 population estimates Lower juba has an estimated
population of 489,307, while Hiiraan has population of 176,528 and middle Shebelle has a population of
514,901. The shabelle River flows through the south western part of middle Shebelle through hiraan and
has many times overflowed causing deaths and destruction.
The government of Somalia has not been able to maintain a large part of the water infrastructure in the
Shebelle and Jubba Rivers which leads to an increase in frequency of floods that are currently occurring
twice a year. During the SIRNA report published by REACH in June 2015 it was concluded that access to
safe water in times of flood remains one of the major challenges(6 out of 24 villages investigated had no
water point) . The SIRNA assessments indicate that there are villages without any safe water sources like
Shallow wells and people use river water as their water source. In order to reduce the normal use of
unprotected water, there is a need to continue to rehabilitate and sometimes dig new wells. According to
the SIRNA report, only 5% of the people have access to latrines.
Recent assessments (with equal consultations of women as well as men) and field observations indicate
that many people defecate in the open. Apart from hygiene risk, this also affects protection concerns
especially for women and girls as tradition and culture among the Somali forced them to go to the outskirt
at night for long calls. The report further indicated that there is lack of basic hygiene Knowledge and its
Efforts to make the Community lead total sanitation (CLTS) approach in Somalia a success is needed, with
Open Defecation Free (ODF) villages as the main indicator. This methodology minimizes the cost and
maximizes the impact and sustainability when done properly.
The projects goal is to empower the target community access adequate, affordable, clean and safe water
and reduce morbidity and mortality rates that is caused by water borne related diseases for host
communities and IDP’s, including men, women, girls and boys through improving access to safe water,
better hygiene practices and better sanitation
1.2 Project justification:
According to the WASH cluster gap analysis report for Somalia (September 2015), the gaps remain high:
73% of the population do not have sustained access to safe water, 74% do not have temporary access to
safe water, 79% have unsafe sanitation practices and 67% lack interactive knowledge on hygiene. Urgent
improvements of WASH services in IDP sites with chronic malnutrition and areas with high prevalence of
AWD/Cholera are needed. Needs assessment done in Afmadow and Beletweine in October 2014 and
December 2015 respectively indicate that over 60% of the local water catchments in Afmadow are highly
silted and can only collect very small amount of water during the rainy season.
The water catchments dry up during the dry season forcing many households to depend on water
trucking/vouchers or to migrate towards the few reliable water sources. This is worsened by the limited
number of functional boreholes in the area due to poor yield and high salinity. For Beletweyne, water quality
remains a major concern as people rely on the river water without any means of water treatment.
Inaccessibility due to insecurity and the limited number of local service providers contributes to the high
cost of providing services. Surveys and field reports indicate that about 18 per cent of strategic water points
are non-functional. Acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) and cholera is endemic and claims thousands of lives
(especially children under age 5) annually, particularly in densely populated areas in southern and central
Somalia. Conditions in internally displaced persons settlements are sub-standard and at high risk of cholera
and other waterborne diseases due to inadequate access to basic wash services.
Open defecation stands at 44 per cent for rural areas and 29 per cent overall (urban, rural, internally
displaced persons and nomadic pastoralists). The potential for contamination of water and food with human
excreta is, therefore, extremely high. The practice of open defecation and on-site human waste disposal
combined with overflowing pit latrines and faecal contamination of drinking water is in the high-risk in parts
of Hiiraan and middle Shebelle regions continues to contribute disease outbreaks. Women and girls pay
the heaviest price for poor sanitation. Poor access to safe drinking water and lack of adequate sanitation
facilities coupled with poor hygienic practices are major threats for the survival and development of children
in Somalia. Diarrhoeal diseases account for the majority of deaths among children along with respiratory
infections. Based on UNFPA 2014 population estimates, 12.3 million. In many locations, the absence of
toilets and restrictive cultural norms means women or girls can only go out after dark to relieve them. This
exposes them to high risk of protection violations, including rape.
2.0 Objectives of the Project
The overall objective of the proposed project is to enhance access to affordable clean and safe water by
providing WASH facilities to approximately 15000 returnees, IDPs and their host communities.
2.1 The specific objectives are:
 To improve access to adequate, affordable clean and safe water
 To improve access to proper sanitation facilities through construction of latrines with hand washing
facilities as well as rehabilitation of shallow wells.
 To improves knowledge on hygiene practices through hygiene promotion.
 To reduce the number and impact of AWD outbreaks by preventive and chlorination methods and
distribution of hygiene kits.
 To improve the access to safe water by chlorination, constructing new water points as well as the
rehabilitation of old ones.
 To improve and make use of the early warning system so that all people are covered in the areas
of operation and people are aware of the hygiene related consequences of flood like how to access
and treat water for human consumption
3.0 Proposed Activities
 Conduct 12 mass hygiene campaign to sensitize the community on hygiene and sanitation
 Conduct PHAST trainings for WASH committee members
 Distribution of emergency household water treatments;
 Rehabilitation and/or protection of strategic water points (perennial water points such as boreholes,
community water storage structures and shallow wells) coupled with a sustained community
management system.
 Distribution of WASH supplies to affected and vulnerable people ( with a priority for women headed
HH, elderly, disabled) in case of AWD outbreaks or threats of an outbreak
 Distribution and Instruction on how to use the hygiene kits by committee members.
 Training of 90 hygiene committee members of which at least 40 are women.
 Chlorination of wells and preventive chlorination of wells in case of AWD or heightened risk of AWD.
 Construction of gender friendly latrines with inside locks in case of larger displacements (The latrines
will be constructed in consultation with respective beneficiaries considering the culture of the people
and people disabilities).
APD will train local WASH committee members on basic hygiene and sanitation so that they can work with
the community members in hygiene promotion. IEC Materials will also be distributed to help in the hygiene
campaign for people to understand the importance of hygiene. To achieve sustainable behaviour change
APD will facilitate a CLTS approach where communities are mobilized to completely eliminate open
defecation (OD).Communities are facilitated to conduct their own appraisal and analysis of open defecation
(OD) and take their own action to become ODF (open defecation free).
4.0 Expected Results
 Reduced cases of AWD
 Availability of clean and safe drinking water for domestic use
 Increased awareness of public health and hygiene risks
 Behaviour change among communities members
 Improved hygienic circumstances of people by having ODF villages
 Working early warning system that save lives, save assets and prepare the community in case of
 Maintaining of contact with media as well as community groups/committees and the authorities
 Dissemination of messages (early warning and hygiene messages) when floods are eminent,
warning on the locations of the floods through radio and/or sms by APD
5.0 Monitoring and Evaluation
APD will work with the community, local administration and Donors to achieve the projects goals. APD will
use a participatory approach to establish Village Relief committees at village levels. These committees will
be empowered through different trainings to work with APD representing the community members
Monitoring of the project will be perpetual and will be spearheaded by local project implementation
committee at the village level and APD staff, management team and joint monitoring with project partners
to track project direction and also assess project output and immediate impact. Midterm or end of project
evaluation will be carried out as per donor requirements to document project achievements, gaps,
challenges, lessons learnt and best practice this will be shared with all stakeholders.
5.1 The success of the project will be measured against the identified performance indicators
 Number of hygiene kits Distributed
 Number of people, disaggregated by sex, with temporary access to HH water treatment
 Number of hygiene committee members disaggregated by sex trained
 Number of wells chlorinated or preventively chlorinated
 Number of AWD cases referred to health partners
 Number of (gender sensitive) latrines constructed
 Number of people disaggregated by sex with renewed access to safe and sufficient water
 Number of new wells constructed
 Number of wells rehabilitated
The findings of the monitoring process will be used to make informed decisions and timely adjustments with
a view to ensuring that the project remains on track. The Project Coordinator will consolidate weekly reports
to produce monthly reports and subsequently send to the donor. At the end of the project duration,
quarterly report will also be prepared at the end of every quarter and a final report will be prepared and
shared with the donor. The reporting will be done according to the donor requirement and donor template
will be followed.
Lessons learnt, best practices will be documented and shared with relevant stakeholders to guide the future
interventions. Midterm or end of project evaluation will be carried out as per donor requirements to
document project achievements, gaps, challenges, lessons learnt and best practice this will be shared with
all stakeholders.
6.0 Target Beneficiaries
The direct beneficiaries of the project are poor and vulnerable populations in Hiiraan, middle Shebelle
region of Somalia comprising of members of the host community, returnees and IDPs in Matabaan,
Beletweine and BulloBurte of Hiiraan, Balcad ,Jowhar and Cadale of middle Shebelle region and
Afmadow and Badhaadhe of lower jubba region. The beneficiaries will be provided with WASH
intervention which will mainly include rehabilitation of shallow wells and boreholes, hygiene trainings and
latrine construction. The project will target 15000 returnees/IDPs and host communities. The beneficiaries
will include men, women; and children; People with concerns including people with disabilities, elderly
persons and minorities will be given a special attention.
The project will be community base and the community members will be involved from the planning stage
up to the end, this will give the beneficiaries the project ownership and will enhance sustainability. The
beneficiaries will be involved in all stages from initiation, planning, implementation to monitoring and
evaluation, the community members will select the beneficiaries and will work with the organizations team
on ground throughout the project. The beneficiary will also play a vital role in the monitoring of the project
and will have a hotline for feedback and complains.
7.0 Implementation
The project will be implemented for 12 months in Mataban, Beletweine and BulloBurte ofHiiraan,
Balcad,Jowhar and Cadaleof Middle Shebelle and Afmadow and Badhade of lower juba region.It will
specifically target 15000 people among IDPs, returnees and their host communities who are poor and
vulnerable rural communities. Special consideration will be given to women children and disabled.
Deliberated efforts will be taken to ensure over 50% of those directly reached are women. 30 % quarters
will be reserved for women in all the planned activities. In addition the field officers will constantly be in the
field supported by senior managers based in Nairobi in collaboration with local authorities as well as
community leaders, formed community health committees and camp representatives.
8.0 Coordination
The proposed project shall be implemented in close collaboration with the village WASH committee, local
partners and the community. It shall be headed by 3 project officers in charge of middle Shebelle, Hiiraan
and Lower Juba in collaboration with the Programme manager. The project officers shall be supported by
technical staff based within the project locations. The Project Officer based at the field office shall work with
the local Village WASH committee who shall provide technical support from time to time. The organization
shall also participate in stakeholder forums like the monthly WASH Cluster Committee meetings to update
on project progress and share emerging issues with the members for coordination purposes. The local
community leaders shall also be involved in beneficiaries’ mobilization in the uptake of the services and in
the making of critical suggestions regarding the project implementation and community satisfaction.
9.0 Sustainability
APD will put in place the following strategies to ensure project sustainability beyond the project period: –
a) The project will have built capacity of the community in a participatory way to carry on with and support
the project interventions
b) Village / clan elders and women groups will be involved and given their central role in driving the local
agenda, to ensure sustainability
10.0 Managing and staffing plan
Agency for Peace and Development is registered as a Local Non-Governmental Organization (LNGO in
Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Geneva, Switzerland and United States of America. APD has a regional
coordination office in Nairobi, Kenya and has other several offices in Garissa Kenya, Garowe and
Bossaso in Puntland, Burco in Somaliland, Mogadishu, Beletweyne, Jowhar, Kismayo, Afmadow, and
Dhobley in Central and South Somalia.
APD has successfully implemented projects in Somalia when there was insecurity and poor access
using local networks and staffs camouflaged as locals to ensure the vulnerable population get the
necessary Humanitarian support, with the relative security the project will be managed successfully
APD has over 9 years’ experience implementing development and emergency programs in Somalia thus
have an in-depth understanding of project implementation in these areas. The organization has
implemented large funded projects with effective and efficient financial management systems embracing
accountability and transparency. It has partnership with international organizations including WFP,
Recently APD has developed a strategic plan that will guide the organization from 2016-2020, the strategic
plan includes sections of accountability that can be accessed by Donors, partners and beneficiaries to
guide the smooth implementation of the project, similarly APD has a website that is open for all the
stakeholders and all the organizations progress can be monitored and feedback provided in a addition to
this APD has a large Human resource composed of highly experienced individuals with wide knowledge of
the local context, language and geography this coupled with updated financial, procurement and Human
resource policies makes APD capable of handling the project.
The organization is governed by five well experienced, active and strong board members who have
been elected on the basis of integrity, willingness to render voluntary services, professional experience
while considering diversity in gender, geographical, community (clan) and special interest group
The Executive Director of the organization has the overall responsibility of the organization and all projects
and will allocate 20% of his time to this particular project. Finance officer is responsible for the overall
financial and administration management of the organization and will also allocate 40% of her time to this
project; she has over 5 years experiences in humanitarian work. The Programme coordinator is an
experienced professional and has Master’s degree in public health and will work 50% of his time in this
project. An M&E officer will spearhead the monitoring, evaluation and learning in the project and will devote
60% of his time to the project. Two (2) hygiene promoters will be solely employed in this project and will
work 100% of their time in this project. Nevertheless 2 community health workers and 4 voluntarily WASH
team Members will be engaged and trained. The public Health Engineer will provide (100%) support on the
Hardware part of the WASH project assisted by the 2 hygiene promoters and community health workers.
11.0 Risk
The South Central region of Somalia has been the epicentre of conflict in Somalia with the periodic
occupation of the area by successive unruly armed militias making it difficult for humanitarian agencies to
access people in need of support. The Al-Shabaab guerrilla warfare that involves suicide bombing targeting
Government agencies and Humanitarian aid workers becomes the biggest risk in working in Somalia as
you are uncertain of when and where they will target.
APD will overcome these risks by working with relevant government agencies for intelligence on the
security status